Canadian Citizenship

Canadian citizenship is maintained by the federal department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). In 2019, 249,684 people got Canadian Citizenship and in 2020, it is expected to grow more.

Steps to become Canadian Citizen

1. Apply for Citizenship

Who can apply
To be eligible to become a Canadian citizen, you must:

  • be a permanent resident
  • have lived in Canada for 3 out of the last 5 years
  • have filed your taxes, if you need to
  • pass a test on your rights, responsibilities and knowledge of Canada
  • prove your language skills

Other requirements may apply.

2. Prepare for the citizenship test and interview

Taking the test

The test is:

  • in English or French
  • 30 minutes long
  • 20 questions
  • multiple-choice and true or false questions

You need to get 15 correct answers to pass the test.

After the test: result, interview and next steps

After the test, you’ll meet with a citizenship official for an interview. During the interview, the citizenship official will:

  • give you the results of your test, if you had one
  • check your language skills, if you’re between 18 and 54 years of age
  • verify your application and original documents
  • ask any questions we may have about your application
  • make sure you meet all the requirements for citizenship

If you pass and meet the other requirements for citizenship, we may:

  • give you a ceremony date at the same time we give you the test results or
  • email or send you a letter with the date and time of your ceremony

3. Prepare for the citizenship ceremony

Taking the Oath of Citizenship at a citizenship ceremony is your final step to become a Canadian citizen. Citizenship ceremonies take place across the country and at all times of the year. There are special ceremonies on Canada Day and during Citizenship Week.

Who has to take the oath

Adults and children aged 14 or over must go to the citizenship ceremony and take the oath.

Parents will get certificates of citizenship for their children under age 14. Children under age 14 don’t have to go, but are welcome to.

Get your citizenship ceremony date

About 1 to 2 weeks before the ceremony, we’ll send you a notice with the date, time and location. The ceremony will usually take place within 3 months after your test.

What happens at the ceremony

During your ceremony, you will:

  • take the Oath of Citizenship
  • get your citizenship certificate
  • sign the Oath or Affirmation of Citizenship form
  • sing the national anthem, O Canada

After the ceremony: Apply for a passport, changing your address and other services

As a new citizen, you can apply for a Canadian passport.

  • A valid Canadian passport is the only travel document that proves you have the right to enter Canada.
  • Your citizenship certificate is not a travel document.
  • You must wait at least 2 business days after your ceremony before you can apply for a passport.